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    Finger millet (FM) is a nutritious and gluten-free cereal grain which is rich in dietary fibre, minerals and antioxidant properties, thereby making it an ideal raw material for preparing gluten-free foods for people suffering from celiac disease. Spontaneous fermentation of FM grains has shown improved nutritional and functional properties of its flour and can be used as a functional ingredient for gluten free biscuits. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of spontaneous fermentation (SF) on the nutritional quality, antioxidant, microstructural, and sensory characteristics of gluten-free FM biscuits obtained from light and dark brown FM flours. Results showed that SF decreased ash, crude fibre, and crude fat contents as well as total phenolic and flavonoids contents. Protein content, carbohydrates content, energy values, antioxidant activity (DPPH and FRAP), and mineral content of FM biscuits increased due to SF. The colour properties such as lightness (L*), showed a significant increase as SF period increased in light brown FM biscuits, however dark brown FM biscuits showed no significant difference. The hue angle and colour differences (ΔE) of FM biscuits increased with the increasing period of SF, ranging from 43.20 to 53.76° and from 0.67 to 7.96, respectively. Spontaneous fermentation also decreased physical properties of biscuits such as diameter (4.76 to 4.54 cm), weight (12.77 to 11.99 g), and spread ratio (7.25 to 6.05), while an increase in thickness and hardness was noted. Spontaneous fermentation also induced changes on the microstructure of FM biscuits. Among the fermented biscuits, panelists preferred 24 h gluten-free fermented FM biscuits since they had better sensory properties. Overall, SF enhanced the nutritional value and health promoting compounds of gluten-free FM biscuits.


    Masala Mudau, Mpho Edward Mashau, Shonisani Eugenia Ramashia. Nutritional Quality, Antioxidant, Microstructural and Sensory Properties of Spontaneously Fermented Gluten-Free Finger Millet Biscuits. Foods (Basel, Switzerland). 2022 Apr 27;11(9)

    PMID: 35563992

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