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Iron oxide nanoparticles (ION), with unique magnetic properties, have attracted huge scientific attention for a wide variety of uses, mostly in the biomedical field, due to their high biocompatibility, ability to cross biological membranes, appropriate surface architecture and easy conjugation with targeting ligands. Their current applications include diagnostic imaging, cell labelling, site-directed drug delivery and anticancer hyperthermia therapy. The ION surface may be modified by coating with different materials, aiming to stabilize the nanoparticles in different environments, to allow biomolecule binding favouring surface attachments with several molecules, and to prolong the recognition time by the immune system. Although the potential benefits of ION are considerable, and more and more ION are being manufactured to meet the demands of the rapidly proliferating field of nanomedicine, there is an urgent need to define their toxicological profile in order to avoid any potential health risks associated with their exposure and to reach optimal benefits of their use. The purpose of this chapter is to de-scribe the current knowledge on the ION toxicological features, addressing their structure and physicochemical characteristics, main exposure pathways and toxicokinetic aspects, interaction with cells, and their toxic effects, with special attention to those at the cellular and molecular level. © 2022. The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG.


Natalia Fernández-Bertólez, Carla Costa, Fátima Brandão, João Paulo Teixeira, Eduardo Pásaro, Vanessa Valdiglesias, Blanca Laffon. Toxicological Aspects of Iron Oxide Nanoparticles. Advances in experimental medicine and biology. 2022;1357:303-350

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PMID: 35583650

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