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    Shifts in the timing of cyclic seasonal life-history events are among the most commonly reported responses to climate change, with differences in response rates among interacting species leading to phenological mismatches. Within a species, however, males and females can also exhibit differential sensitivity to environmental cues and may therefore differ in their responsiveness to climate change, potentially leading to phenological mismatches between the sexes. This occurs because males differ from females in when and how energy is allocated to reproduction, resulting in marked sex-differences in life-history timing across the annual cycle. In this review, we take a Tinbergian perspective and examine sex differences in timing of vertebrates from adaptive, ontogenetic, mechanistic, and phylogenetic viewpoints with the goal of informing and motivating more integrative research on sexually dimorphic phenologies. We argue that sexual and natural selection lead to sex-differences in life-history-timing and that understanding the ecological and evolutionary drivers of these differences is critical for connecting climate-driven phenological shifts to population resilience. Ontogeny may influence how and when sex differences in life-history timing arise because the early-life environment can profoundly affect developmental trajectory, rates of reproductive maturation, and seasonal timing. The molecular mechanisms underlying these organismal traits are relevant to identifying the diversity and genetic basis of population- and species-level responses to climate change, and promisingly, the molecular basis of phenology is becoming increasingly well-understood. However, because most studies focus on a single sex, the causes of sex-differences in phenology critical to population resilience often remain unclear. New sequencing tools and analyses informed by phylogeny may help generate hypotheses about mechanism as well as insight into the general "evolvability" of sex differences across phylogenetic scales, especially as trait and genome resources grow. We recommend that greater attention be placed on determining sex-differences in timing mechanisms and monitoring climate change responses in both sexes, and we discuss how new tools may provide key insights into sex-differences in phenology from all four Tinbergian domains.Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology 2022.


    Cory T Williams, Helen E Chmura, Cole K Deal, Kathryn Wilsterman. Sex-differences in Phenology: A Tinbergian Perspective. Integrative and comparative biology. 2022 May 19

    PMID: 35587379

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