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The simplest class of mitochondrion-related organelles (MROs) is the mitosome, an organelle present in a few anaerobic protozoan parasites such as Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia intestinalis, and Cryptosporidium parvum. E. histolytica causes amoebiasis in humans, deemed as one of the important, yet neglected tropical infections in the world. Much of the enigma of the E. histolytica mitosome circles around the obvious lack of a majority of known mitochondrial components and functions exhibited in other organisms. The identification of enzymes responsible for sulfate activation (AS, IPP, and APSK) and a number of lineage-specific proteins such as the outer membrane beta-barrel protein (MBOMP30), and transmembrane domain-containing proteins that bind to various organellar proteins (ETMP1, ETMP30, EHI_170120, and EHI_099350) showcased the remarkable divergence of this organelle compared to the other MROs of anaerobic protozoa. Here, we summarize the findings regarding the biology of the mitosomes in E. histolytica, from their discovery up to the present understanding of its roles and interactions. We also include current advances and future perspectives on the biology, biochemistry, and evolution of the mitosomes of E. histolytica. © 2022 The Authors. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology published by Wiley Periodicals LLC on behalf of International Society of Protistologists.

Citation

Herbert J Santos, Tomoyoshi Nozaki. The mitosome of the anaerobic parasitic protist Entamoeba histolytica: A peculiar and minimalist mitochondrion-related organelle. The Journal of eukaryotic microbiology. 2022 May 19:e12923


PMID: 35588086

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