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    The sampling problem is one of the most widely studied topics in computational chemistry. While various methods exist for sampling along a set of reaction coordinates, many require system-dependent hyperparameters to achieve maximum efficiency. In this work, we present an alchemical variation of adaptive sequential Monte Carlo (SMC), an irreversible importance resampling method that is part of a well-studied class of methods that have been used in various applications but have been underexplored in computational biophysics. Afterward, we apply alchemical SMC on a variety of test cases, including torsional rotations of solvated ligands (butene and a terphenyl derivative), translational and rotational movements of protein-bound ligands, and protein side chain rotation coupled to the ligand degrees of freedom (T4-lysozyme, protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B, and transforming growth factor β). We find that alchemical SMC is an efficient way to explore targeted degrees of freedom and can be applied to a variety of systems using the same hyperparameters to achieve a similar performance. Alchemical SMC is a promising tool for preparatory exploration of systems where long-timescale sampling of the entire system can be traded off against short-timescale sampling of a particular set of degrees of freedom over a population of conformers.


    Miroslav Suruzhon, Michael S Bodnarchuk, Antonella Ciancetta, Ian D Wall, Jonathan W Essex. Enhancing Ligand and Protein Sampling Using Sequential Monte Carlo. Journal of chemical theory and computation. 2022 Jun 14;18(6):3894-3910

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    PMID: 35588256

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