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    Wildlife trade is an increasing problem worldwide, whether legal or illegal. It causes species extinction, connects to organized crime and contributes to social unrest. Wildlife trade is regulated through the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES), a convention that includes most of the countries in the world. Even though wildlife trade is not necessarily breach of any law, wildlife trade still constitutes severe breaches of species justice, ecojustice, environmental justice, and animal rights. By employing these perspectives in the study of wildlife trade, the harms nonhuman animals suffer as victims of this trade receives a broader concern than that encompassed through conventional criminology. This article addresses nonhuman animal victimization through a theoretical lens that includes the justice perspective found in green criminology, and Nussbaum's concept of dignified existence. Empirically the article is based on an ongoing research project: Criminal Justice, Wildlife Conservation, and Animal rights in the Anthropocene (CRIMEANTHROP). The article starts with an introduction, followed by theoretical outlining and a presentation of empirical findings. These findings are discussed using the theoretical perspectives mentioned above. The concluding discussion suggests a radical shift in the function of CITES, from trade to conditional aid.


    Ragnhild Sollund. Wildlife Trade and Law Enforcement: A Proposal for a Remodeling of CITES Incorporating Species Justice, Ecojustice, and Environmental Justice. International journal of offender therapy and comparative criminology. 2022 Jul;66(9):1017-1035

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    PMID: 35590485

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