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With the development of advanced technologies, many small open reading frames (sORFs) have been found to be translated into micropeptides. Interestingly, a considerable proportion of micropeptides are located in mitochondria, which are designated here as mitochondrion-located peptides (MLPs). These MLPs often contain a transmembrane domain and show a high degree of conservation across species. They usually act as co-factors of large proteins and play regulatory roles in mitochondria such as electron transport in the respiratory chain, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, metabolic homeostasis, and so on. Deficiency of MLPs disturbs diverse physiological processes including immunity, differentiation, and metabolism both in vivo and in vitro. These findings reveal crucial functions for MLPs and provide fresh insights into diverse mitochondrion-associated biological processes and diseases. © 2022 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.


Xintong Zheng, Mengqing Xiang. Mitochondrion-located peptides and their pleiotropic physiological functions. The FEBS journal. 2022 Nov;289(22):6919-6935

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PMID: 35599630

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