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The aim of this study was to develop and validate a deep learning-based convolutional neural network (CNN) for the automated detection and categorization of teeth affected by molar-incisor-hypomineralization (MIH) on intraoral photographs. The data set consisted of 3241 intraoral images (767 teeth with no MIH/no intervention, 76 with no MIH/atypical restoration, 742 with no MIH/sealant, 815 with demarcated opacity/no intervention, 158 with demarcated opacity/atypical restoration, 181 with demarcated opacity/sealant, 290 with enamel breakdown/no intervention, 169 with enamel breakdown/atypical restoration, and 43 with enamel breakdown/sealant). These images were divided into a training (N = 2596) and a test sample (N = 649). All images were evaluated by an expert group, and each diagnosis served as a reference standard for cyclic training and evaluation of the CNN (ResNeXt-101-32 × 8d). Statistical analysis included the calculation of contingency tables, areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUCs) and saliency maps. The developed CNN was able to categorize teeth with MIH correctly with an overall diagnostic accuracy of 95.2%. The overall SE and SP amounted to 78.6% and 97.3%, respectively, which indicate that the CNN performed better in healthy teeth compared to those with MIH. The AUC values ranging from 0.873 (enamel breakdown/sealant) to 0.994 (atypical restoration/no MIH). It was possible to categorize the majority of clinical photographs automatically by using a trained deep learning-based CNN with an acceptably high diagnostic accuracy. Artificial intelligence-based dental diagnostics may support dental diagnostics in the future regardless of the need to improve accuracy. © 2022. The Author(s).


Jule Schönewolf, Ole Meyer, Paula Engels, Anne Schlickenrieder, Reinhard Hickel, Volker Gruhn, Marc Hesenius, Jan Kühnisch. Artificial intelligence-based diagnostics of molar-incisor-hypomineralization (MIH) on intraoral photographs. Clinical oral investigations. 2022 Sep;26(9):5923-5930

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PMID: 35608684

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