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Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a new challenge in modern medicine, due to its high prevalence in the world. The pathogenesis of NAFLD is a complex dysmetabolic process, following the "multiple-hit" hypothesis that involves hepatocytes excessive accumulation of triglycerides, insulin resistance (IR), increased oxidative stress, chronic low-grade inflammatory response and lipotoxicity. In this review, we provide an overview of the interrelation of these processes, the link between systemic and local inflammation and the role of dysfunctional adipose tissue (AT) in the NAFLD development. Multiple extrahepatic triggers of the pathophysiological mechanisms of NAFLD are described: nutritional deficiency or malnutrition, unhealthy food intake, the dysfunction of the liver-gut axis, the involvement of the mesenteric adipose tissue, the role of adipokines such as adiponectin, of food intake hormone, the leptin and leptin resistance (LR) and adipose tissue's hormone, the resistin. In addition, a wide range of intrahepatic players are involved: oxidative stress, fatty acid oxidation, endoplasmic reticulum stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, resident macrophages (Kupffer cells), neutrophils, dendritic cells (DCs), B and T lymphocytes contributing to the potential evolution of NAFLD to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). This interdependent approach to complex dysmetabolic imbalance in NAFLD, integrating relevant studies, could contribute to a better clarification of pathogenesis and consequently the development of new personalized treatments, targeting de novo lipogenesis, chronic inflammation and fibrosis. Further studies are needed to focus not only on treatment, but also on prevention strategy in NAFLD.


Maria Petrescu, Sonia Irina Vlaicu, Lorena Ciumărnean, Mircea Vasile Milaciu, Codruța Mărginean, Mira Florea, Ștefan Cristian Vesa, Monica Popa. Chronic Inflammation-A Link between Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) and Dysfunctional Adipose Tissue. Medicina (Kaunas, Lithuania). 2022 May 06;58(5)

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PMID: 35630058

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