Correlation Engine 2.0
Clear Search sequence regions

Sizes of these terms reflect their relevance to your search.

A severe course of acute respiratory disease caused by influenza A virus (IAV) infection is often linked with subsequent bacterial superinfection, which is difficult to cure. Thus, synergistic influenza-bacterial co-infection represents a serious medical problem. The pathogenic changes in the infected host are accelerated as a consequence of IAV infection, reflecting its impact on the host immune response. IAV infection triggers a complex process linked with the blocking of innate and adaptive immune mechanisms required for effective antiviral defense. Such disbalance of the immune system allows for easier initiation of bacterial superinfection. Therefore, many new studies have emerged that aim to explain why viral-bacterial co-infection can lead to severe respiratory disease with possible fatal outcomes. In this review, we discuss the key role of several IAV proteins-namely, PB1-F2, hemagglutinin (HA), neuraminidase (NA), and NS1-known to play a role in modulating the immune defense of the host, which consequently escalates the development of secondary bacterial infection, most often caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae. Understanding the mechanisms leading to pathological disorders caused by bacterial superinfection after the previous viral infection is important for the development of more effective means of prevention; for example, by vaccination or through therapy using antiviral drugs targeted at critical viral proteins.


Miriam Mikušová, Karolína Tomčíková, Katarína Briestenská, František Kostolanský, Eva Varečková. The Contribution of Viral Proteins to the Synergy of Influenza and Bacterial Co-Infection. Viruses. 2022 May 16;14(5)

Expand section icon Mesh Tags

Expand section icon Substances

PMID: 35632805

View Full Text