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Pre-mRNA splicing is an important step in the posttranscriptional processing of transcripts and a key regulator of development. The heterotrimeric retention and splicing (RES) complex plays vital roles in the growth and development of yeast, zebrafish, and humans by mediating pre-mRNA splicing of multiple genes. However, whether the RES complex is conserved in plants and what specific functions it has remain unknown. In this study, we identified Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) BUD13 (AtBUD13), GROWTH, DEVELOPMENT AND SPLICING 1 (GDS1), and DAWDLE (DDL) as the counterparts of the yeast RES complex subunits Bud site selection protein 13 (Bud13), U2 snRNP component Snu17 (Snu17), and Pre-mRNA leakage protein 1, respectively. Moreover, we showed that RES is an ancient complex evolutionarily conserved in eukaryotes. GDS1 directly interacts with both AtBUD13 and DDL in nuclear speckles. The BUD13 domain of AtBUD13 and the RNA recognition motif domain of GDS1 are necessary and sufficient for AtBUD13-GDS1 interaction. Mutants of AtBUD13, GDS1, and DDL failed to properly splice multiple genes involved in cell proliferation and showed defects in early embryogenesis and root development. In addition, we found that GDS1 and DDL interact, respectively, with the U2 small nuclear ribonucleoproteins auxiliary factor AtU2AF65B and the NineTeen Complex-related splicing factor SKIP, which are essential for early steps of spliceosome assembly and recognition of splice sites. Altogether, our work reveals that the Arabidopsis RES complex is important for root and early embryo development by modulating pre-mRNA splicing. © American Society of Plant Biologists 2022. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email:


Feng Xiong, Jing-Jing Ren, Yu-Yi Wang, Zhou Zhou, Hao-Dong Qi, Marisa S Otegui, Xiu-Ling Wang. An Arabidopsis Retention and Splicing complex regulates root and embryo development through pre-mRNA splicing. Plant physiology. 2022 Aug 29;190(1):621-639

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PMID: 35640107

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