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Graphene and its derivatives are in the edge of technology with a wide and diverse range of applications. In the last years, especially graphene quantum dots (GQDs) have had their biomedical application expanded in scope, mainly focused on cancer therapy, drug delivery and imaging. Although many studies have evaluated the application of this nanomaterial in biomedical field, only a few studies aimed to understand their biological impact in human health. In this regard, here we evaluated the impact of high doses of GQDs on the microcirculation of a healthy animal model to better assess risks of its use in humans. Our data show that successive applications of GQDs cause irreversible damage to the microcirculation. After seven days, a complete destruction of the microcirculation has been observed. In addition, GQDs showed substantial activity in human erythrocytes. Our findings suggest that risks associated with the use of GQDs, as well as all graphene derivatives, must be better understood, especially concerning biomedical application. A greater understanding of how GQDs impact body circulation, including the context of environmental and engineered nanosystems, is of paramount importance. Copyright © 2022 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Aline Oliveira da Silva Barros, Eduardo Ricci-Junior, Jonathas Xavier Pereira, Konstantin Pikula, Kirill Golokhvast, Alex Christian Manahães, Pedro Filho Noronha Souza, Luciana Magalhães Rebelo Alencar, Eliete Bouskela, Ralph Santos-Oliveira. High doses of graphene quantum dots impacts on microcirculation system: An observational study. European journal of pharmaceutics and biopharmaceutics : official journal of Arbeitsgemeinschaft fur Pharmazeutische Verfahrenstechnik e.V. 2022 Jul;176:180-187

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PMID: 35640783

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