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    Dengue virus (DENV) NS1 is a multifunctional protein essential for viral replication. To gain insights into NS1 functions in mosquito cells, the protein interactome of DENV NS1 in C6/36 cells was investigated using a proximity biotinylation system and mass spectrometry. A total of 817 mosquito targets were identified as protein-protein interacting with DENV NS1. Approximately 14% of them coincide with interactomes previously obtained in vertebrate cells, including the oligosaccharide transferase complex, the chaperonin containing TCP-1, vesicle localization, and ribosomal proteins. Notably, other protein pathways not previously reported in vertebrate cells, such as epigenetic regulation and RNA silencing, were also found in the NS1 interactome in mosquito cells. Due to the novel and strong interactions observed for NS1 and the epigenetic regulator DIDO1 (Death-Inducer Obliterator 1), the role of DIDO1 in viral replication was further explored. Interactions between NS1 and DIDO1 were corroborated in infected mosquito cells, by colocalization and proximity ligation assays. Silencing DIDO1 expression results in a significant reduction in DENV and ZIKV replication and progeny production. Comparison of transcription analysis of mock or DENV infected cells silenced for DIDO1 revealed variations in multiple gene expression pathways, including pathways associated with DENV infection such as RNA surveillance, IMD, and Toll. These results suggest that DIDO1 is a host factor involved in the negative modulation of the antiviral response necessary for flavivirus replication in mosquito cells. Our findings uncover novel mechanisms of NS1 to promote DENV and ZIKV replication, and add to the understanding of NS1 as a multifunctional protein. IMPORTANCE Dengue is the most important mosquito-borne viral disease to humans. Dengue virus NS1 is a multifunctional protein essential for replication and modulation of innate immunity. To gain insights into NS1 functions, the protein interactome of dengue virus NS1 in Aedes albopictus cells was investigated using a proximity biotinylation system and mass spectrometry. Several protein pathways, not previously observed in vertebrate cells, such as transcription and epigenetic regulation, were found as part of the NS1 interactome in mosquito cells. Among those, DIDO1 was found to be a necessary host factor for dengue and Zika virus replication in mosquito cells. Transcription analysis of infected mosquito cells silenced for DIDO1 revealed alterations of the IMD and Toll pathways, part of the antiviral response in mosquitoes. The results suggest that DIDO1 is a host factor involved in modulation of the antiviral response and necessary for flavivirus replication.

    Citation

    Gerson I Caraballo, Romel Rosales, Mercedes Viettri, Juan Manuel Castillo, Raymundo Cruz, Siyuan Ding, Harry B Greenberg, Juan E Ludert. The Dengue Virus Nonstructural Protein 1 (NS1) Interacts with the Putative Epigenetic Regulator DIDO1 to Promote Flavivirus Replication in Mosquito Cells. Journal of virology. 2022 Jun 22;96(12):e0070422

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    PMID: 35652656

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