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The novel fourth-generation fluoroquinolones (FQs) were developed to improve the antimicrobial activity and their utilization has rapidly increased in recent years. However, knowledge of the ecotoxicity and microalgae-mediated biodegradation of these novel FQs is limited. In this research, the toxic effects of moxifloxacin (MOX) and gatifloxacin (GAT) on Chlamydomonas reinhardtii as well as their biodegradation and metabolic fate were investigated. The results showed that the toxicity of MOX to C. reinhardtii was higher than that of GAT, and increased with culture time. Chlorophyll fluorescence and pigment content analyses suggested that the decrease in photosynthetic efficiency was primarily caused by the inhibition of electron transport after QA in PSII complex. These FQs induced oxidative damage in cells, and the antioxidation mechanisms of C. reinhardtii were analyzed. The maximum MOX removal of 77.67% by C. reinhardtii was achieved at 1 mg/L MOX, whereas the maximum GAT removal of 34.04% was attained at 20 mg/L GAT. The different hydrophilicity and lipophilicity of these FQs resulted in distinct findings in biodegradation experiments. Identification of the transformation products suggested that the likely biodegradation pathways of FQs by C. reinhardtii were hydroxylation, demethylation, and ring cleavage. Copyright © 2022 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Liang Wan, Yixiao Wu, Yan Zhang, Weihao Zhang. Toxicity, biodegradation of moxifloxacin and gatifloxacin on Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and their metabolic fate. Ecotoxicology and environmental safety. 2022 Jul 15;240:113711

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PMID: 35653971

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