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Enterococcus faecalis is the most important agent of persistent apical periodontitis, and recently, Candida albicans has also been implicated in periapical infections. This study aimed to optimize an in vitro E. faecalis and C. albicans dual-species biofilm protocol for endodontic research. Different physicochemical conditions for biofilm formation were tested. Susceptibility assays to antimicrobials, biochemical composition and an ultra-morphological structure analyses were performed. Reproducible dual-species biofilms were established in BHI medium at 35 °C, for 48 h and in a microaerophilic atmosphere. An increase in biomass and chitin content was detected after vancomycin treatment. Structural analysis revealed that the dual-species biofilm was formed by both microorganisms adhered to the substrate. The proposed protocol could be useful for the study of interkingdom relationships and help to find new strategies against periapical infections.


Nicole de Mello Fiallos, Ana Luiza Ribeiro Aguiar, Bruno Nascimento da Silva, Marcos Fábio Gadelha Rocha, José Júlio Costa Sidrim, Débora Castelo Branco de Souza Collares Maia, Rossana de Aguiar Cordeiro. Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans dual-species biofilm: establishment of an in vitro protocol and characterization. Biofouling. 2022 Apr;38(4):401-413

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PMID: 35655421

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