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Several illnesses that are chronic and acute are becoming more relevant as the world's aging population expands, and the medical sector is transforming rapidly, as a consequence of which the need for "point-of-care" (POC), identification/detection, and real time management of health issues that have been required for a long time are increasing. Biomarkers are biological markers that help to detect status of health or disease. Biosensors' applications are for screening for early detection, chronic disease treatment, health management, and well-being surveillance. Smart devices that allow continual monitoring of vital biomarkers for physiological health monitoring, medical diagnosis, and assessment are becoming increasingly widespread in a variety of applications, ranging from biomedical to healthcare systems of surveillance and monitoring. The term "smart" is used due to the ability of these devices to extract data with intelligence and in real time. Wearable, implantable, ingestible, and portable devices can all be considered smart devices; this is due to their ability of smart interpretation of data, through their smart sensors or biosensors and indicators. Wearable and portable devices have progressed more and more in the shape of various accessories, integrated clothes, and body attachments and inserts. Moreover, implantable and ingestible devices allow for the medical diagnosis and treatment of patients using tiny sensors and biomedical gadgets or devices have become available, thus increasing the quality and efficacy of medical treatments by a significant margin. This article summarizes the state of the art in portable, wearable, ingestible, and implantable devices for health status monitoring and disease management and their possible applications. It also identifies some new technologies that have the potential to contribute to the development of personalized care. Further, these devices are non-invasive in nature, providing information with accuracy and in given time, thus making these devices important for the future use of humanity.


Shouvik Mukherjee, Shariq Suleman, Roberto Pilloton, Jagriti Narang, Kirti Rani. State of the Art in Smart Portable, Wearable, Ingestible and Implantable Devices for Health Status Monitoring and Disease Management. Sensors (Basel, Switzerland). 2022 Jun 01;22(11)

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PMID: 35684847

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