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De novo immune responses to myeloid and other blood-borne tumors are notably limited and ineffective, making our ability to promote immune responses with vaccines a major challenge. While focus has been largely on cytotoxic cell-mediated tumor eradication, B-cells and the antibodies they produce also have roles in anti-tumor responses. Indeed, therapeutic antibody-mediated tumor cell killing is routinely employed in patients with hematolymphoid cancers, but whether endogenous antibody responses can be incited to blood-born tumors remains poorly studied. A major limitation of immunoglobulin therapies is that cell surface expression of tumor-associated antigen (TAA) targets is dynamic and varied, making promotion of polyclonal, endogenous B cell responses appealing. Since many TAAs are self-antigens, developing tumor vaccines that enable production of antibodies to non-polymorphic antigen targets remains a challenge. As B cell responses to RNA vaccines are known to occur, we employed the Viral Replicon Particles (VRP) which was constructed to encode mouse FLT3. The VRP-FLT3 vaccine provoked a rapid IgG B-cell response to this self-antigen in leukemia and lymphoma mouse models. In addition, IgGs to other TAAs were also produced. Our data suggest that vaccination with RNA viral particle vectors incites a loss of B-cell tolerance that enables production of anti-tumor antibodies. This proof of principle work provides impetus to employ such strategies that lead to a break in B-cell tolerance and enable production of broadly reactive anti-TAA antibodies as potential future therapeutic agents for patients with hematolymphoid cancers. Copyright © 2022 Su, Imai, Jia, Li, DiCioccio, Serody, Poe, Chen, Doan and Sarantopoulos.


Hsuan Su, Kazuhiro Imai, Wei Jia, Zhiguo Li, Rachel A DiCioccio, Jonathan S Serody, Jonathan C Poe, Benny J Chen, Phuong L Doan, Stefanie Sarantopoulos. Alphavirus Replicon Particle Vaccine Breaks B Cell Tolerance and Rapidly Induces IgG to Murine Hematolymphoid Tumor Associated Antigens. Frontiers in immunology. 2022;13:865486

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PMID: 35686131

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