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    Protein dynamics involving higher-energy sparsely populated conformational substates are frequently critical for protein function. This study describes the dynamics of the homodimer (p50)2 of the p50 Rel homology region (RHR) of the transcription factor NF-κB, using 13C relaxation dispersion experiments with specifically (13C, 1H)-labeled methyl groups of Ile (δ), Leu and Val. Free (p50)2 is highly dynamic in solution, showing μs-ms relaxation dispersion consistent with exchange between the ground state and higher energy substates. These fluctuations propagate from the DNA-binding loops through the core of the domain. The motions are damped in the presence of κB DNA, but the NMR spectra of the DNA complexes reveal multiple local conformations of the p50 RHR homodimer bound to certain κB DNA sequences. Varying the length and sequence of κB DNA revealed two factors that promote a single bound conformation for the complex: the length of the κB site in the duplex and a symmetrical sequence of guanine nucleotides at both ends of the recognition motif. The dynamic nature of the DNA-binding loops, together with the multiple bound conformations of p50 RHR with certain κB sites, is consistent with variations in the transcriptional activity of the p50 homodimer with different κB sequences. © The Author(s) 2022. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.


    Amrinder Singh, Maria A Martinez-Yamout, Peter E Wright, H Jane Dyson. Structural and dynamic studies of DNA recognition by NF-κB p50 RHR homodimer using methyl NMR spectroscopy. Nucleic acids research. 2022 Jul 08;50(12):7147-7160

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    PMID: 35748866

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