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Agouti-related protein/neuropeptide Y (AgRP/NPY) neurons promote feeding, while proopiomelanocortin/cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (POMC/CART) neurons and melanocortin receptor neurons inhibit feeding; these three types of neurons play vital roles in regulating feeding. The central melanocortin system composed of these neurons is critical for the regulation of food intake and energy metabolism. It regulates energy intake and consumption by activating or inhibiting the activities of AgRP/NPY neurons and POMC/CART neurons and then affects the feeding behaviour of animals to maintain the energy balance. Meanwhile, organisms can also positively or negatively regulate energy homeostasis through the negative feedback of the neuron system. With further studies, understanding of the process and factors involved in the energy balance regulation of mammals and birds can be improved, which will provide a favourable scientific basis to reduce costs and improve meat production in production and breeding. Copyright © 2022 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Rongrong Si, Deng Pan, Zixu Wang, Yaoxing Chen, Jing Cao. Regulation of the central melanocortin system on energy balance in mammals and birds. Neuropeptides. 2022 Oct;95:102267

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PMID: 35752067

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