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Gentamicin is a commonly used antibiotic in neonates. Its components C1, C1a, C2, C2a, and C2b may have different nephrotoxic potential. We aimed to describe pharmacokinetics and nephrotoxic potential of gentamicin components in a joint model in neonates. Neonates with gestational age ≥ 32 weeks treated with gentamicin blood samples were collected at a steady state. Pharmacokinetics of C1, C1a, and C2/C2a/C2b were modelled in NONMEM and included competitive uptake into kidney proximal tubular cells and decrease in glomerular filtration rate. The nephrotoxic potential of total gentamicin, C1, C1a, and C2/C2a/C2b was evaluated by simulations. A total of 30 neonates (median (range) gestational age 36.4 (32-42) weeks, postnatal age 3 (1-5) days, creatinine value 47.5 (17-78) µmol/L) were included. Pharmacokinetics of all components was best described by a two-compartment model. Clearance of C1 was smaller than clearances of C1a and C2/C2a/C2b, and other parameters were similar. The model with different Km (concentration for which half-maximal uptake into kidney proximal tubular cells is achieved) for C1, C1a, and C2/C2a/C2b (37.5, 18, 15 mg/L) provided a better fit than the model with equal Km (15 mg/L). According to simulations, decrease in glomerular filtration rate in the case of once-daily dosing of 4 mg/kg/day was the largest for C2/C2a/C2b (median (5th and 95th percentile) 0.22% (0.00-8.12%)), followed by total gentamicin (0.20% (0.00-4.10%)), C1a (0.11% (0.00-7.57%)), and C1 (0.04% (0.00-1.55%)). Different gentamicin components C1, C1a, and C2/C2a/C2b exhibited different pharmacokinetic profiles. Once-daily dosing of 4 mg/kg/day results in low nephrotoxicity in neonates, in line with previous studies. © 2022. The Author(s), under exclusive licence to American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists.


Hiie Soeorg, Helgi Padari, Karin Kipper, Mari-Liis Ilmoja, Irja Lutsar, Tuuli Metsvaht. Pharmacokinetics of Gentamicin Components C1, C1a, and C2/C2a/C2b and Subsequent Decline in Glomerular Filtration Rate in Neonates. The AAPS journal. 2022 Jun 27;24(4):77

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PMID: 35760955

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