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    Implanon discontinuation before the recommended time is problematic, as it puts women at risk of unwanted pregnancies and unsafe abortions, along with negative maternal health outcomes. Although the magnitude and determinants of Implanon discontinuation have been studied in Ethiopia, the results were inconsistent, with significant variability. Hence, this systematic review and meta-analysis aimed at estimating the pooled prevalence of Implanon discontinuation and its determinants in Ethiopia. A comprehensive search of studies published before 18 February 2022 was done using electronic databases such as PubMed, Embase, Google Scholar, Scopus, Web of Science, Science Direct, and Cochrane Library. The relevant data were extracted using a Microsoft Excel 2013 and analyzed using STATA Version 16. A random-effect meta-analysis model was used to compute pooled prevalence and odds ratio. The Cochrane Q test statistics and I2 tests were used to assess the heterogeneity of the included studies. A funnel plot, Begg's, and Egger's tests were used to check for the presence of publication bias. A total of 11 studies with 4320 study participants were included in this meta-analysis. The overall pooled prevalence of Implanon discontinuation in Ethiopia was found to be 32.62% (95% confidence interval = 24.10, 41.13). There was significant heterogeneity among the included studies (I2 = 97.4%, p < 0.001). However, there was no statistical evidence of publication bias (p = 0.533). Dissatisfied with service provision at the time of insertion (odds ratio = 3.92, 95% confidence interval = 1.54, 6.29), not having pre-insertion counseling (odds ratio = 2.98, 95% confidence interval = 1.91, 5.04), the absence of post-insertion follow-up (odds ratio = 4.03, 95% confidence interval = 2.17, 5.90), and the presence of side effects (odds ratio = 2.93, 95% confidence interval = 1.87, 3.98) were found to be determinants of Implanon discontinuation. According to this systematic review and meta-analysis, one-third of Ethiopian women discontinued Implanon before the recommended time (3 years). Program managers and service providers should consider using more evidence-based and participatory counseling approaches to enhance client satisfaction. Furthermore, family planning service delivery points should be equipped to manage and reassure women who are experiencing side effects.


    Aklilu Habte, Aiggan Tamene, Demelash Woldeyohannes, Biruk Bogale, Dejene Ermias, Fitsum Endale, Addisalem Gizachew, Merertu Wondimu, Dawit Sulamo. The prevalence of Implanon discontinuation and associated factors among Ethiopian women: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Women's health (London, England). 2022 Jan-Dec;18:17455057221109222

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    PMID: 35762596

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