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    Cell markers of somatic embryogenesis initiation from leaf tissues in oil palm involve the participation of procambial cells, DNA demethylation, and auxin accumulation. Low callogenesis and genotype-dependent response have been mentioned in the development of somatic embryogenesis protocols of Elaeis oleifera × E. guineensis elite hybrids, which requires more detailed investigations of the process. Thus, the initial cellular responses of immature leaves of adult genotypes of this hybrid were investigated for the first time, emphasizing histological, epigenetic, and endogenous auxin changes. Leaf segments from two genotypes, one responsive to somatic embryogenesis (B351733) and another non-responsive (B352933), were inoculated in Murashige and Skoog medium with 450 µM of 4-amino-3, 5, 6-trichloropicolinic acid. For anatomical analysis, samples of both genotypes were collected at 0, 20, 90, and 105 days of cultivation. Samples of both genotypes were also taken at different cultivation periods to analyze DNA methylation status (% 5-mC-5 methylcytosine) via ELISA test. Immunolocalization assays were performed with anti-indole-3-acetic acid and anti-5-methyl-deoxycytosine antibodies from samples of hybrid B351733. We distinguished two groups of cells reactive to the induction of embryogenic callogenesis, parenchymatous sheath cells, and procambial cells; however, only the latter are directly involved with the formation of calluses. The data obtained indicate that the formation of calluses in hybrid B351733 is related to DNA hypomethylation, while the non-responsiveness of leaf explants in hybrid B352932 is related to DNA hypermethylation. The in situ immunolocalization enabled the identification of initial markers of the callogenic process, such as IAA accumulation and hypomethylation. Identifying these events brings the possibility of establishing strategies for efficient manipulation of somatic embryogenesis protocols in palm trees. © 2022. The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature.


    Inaê Mariê de Araújo Silva-Cardoso, Ana Cristina Meneses Mendes Gomes, Jonny Everson Scherwinski-Pereira. Cellular responses of oil palm genotypes during somatic embryogenesis involve participation of procambial cells, DNA demethylation, and auxin accumulation. Plant cell reports. 2022 Sep;41(9):1875-1893

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    PMID: 35776139

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