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    Ultraviolet radiation (UV) and triclosan (TCS) affect the early development of marine fish; however, the corresponding molecular mechanisms are still not fully understood. Therefore, this work aims to study the effects of the single and combined exposure to these stressors during the thyroid-regulated metamorphosis of the flatfish Solea senegalensis. Sub-lethal exposure (5.89 kJ m-2 UV and/or 0.546 and 1.090 mg L-1 TCS for 48 h) was performed at the beginning of metamorphosis (13 days after hatching, dah), followed by a period in clean media until complete metamorphosis (24 dah). Malformations, metamorphosis progression, length, behavior and the expression of thyroid axis-related genes were studied. TCS induced malformations, decreased swimming performance, and induced metamorphosis acceleration at 15 dah, followed by a significant metamorphosis delay. Such effects were more noticeable in the presence of UV. The down-regulation of five thyroid axis-related genes occurred after exposure to TCS (15 dah), and after 9 days in clean media two genes were still down-regulated. UV exposure increased the effect of TCS by further down-regulating gene expression immediately after the exposure. Since several effects persisted after the period in clean media, implications of these stressors (mainly TCS) on the ecological performance of the species are suggested. Copyright © 2022 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


    M J Araújo, C Quintaneiro, R J M Rocha, P Pousão-Ferreira, A Candeias-Mendes, A M V M Soares, M S Monteiro. Single and combined effects of ultraviolet radiation and triclosan during the metamorphosis of Solea senegalensis. Chemosphere. 2022 Nov;307(Pt 1):135583

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    PMID: 35792207

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