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The mixture of 5-chloro-2-methyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one (CMIT, chloromethylisothiazolinone) and 2-methyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one (MIT, methylisothiazolinone) is a commonly used biocide in consumer products. Despite the health issues related to its usage in cosmetics and humidifier disinfectants (HD), understanding its adverse outcome is still limited. Using in vitro cell lines and ex vivo rat models, we examined the effects of CMIT/MIT on the cellular redox homeostasis and energy metabolism in the brain microvascular endothelium, a highly restrictive interface between the bloodstream and brain. In murine bEND.3 and human hCMEC/D3, CMIT/MIT significantly amplified the mitochondrial-derived oxidative stress causing disruption of the mitochondrial membrane potential and oxidative phosphorylation at a sub-lethal concentration (1 μg/mL) or treatment duration (1 h). In addition, CMIT/MIT significantly increased a dynamic imbalance between mitochondrial fission and fusion, and endogenous pathological stressors significantly potentiated the CMIT/MIT-induced endothelial dysfunction. Notably, in the brain endothelium isolated from intravenously CMIT/MIT-administered rats, we observed significant mitochondrial damage and decreased tight junction protein. Taken together, we report that CMIT/MIT significantly impaired mitochondrial function and dynamics resulting in endothelial barrier dysfunction, giving an insight into the role of mitochondrial damage in CMIT/MIT-associated systemic health effects. Copyright © 2022 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Donghyun Kim, Yusun Shin, Eun-Hye Kim, Youngmee Lee, Seongmi Kim, Hyung Sik Kim, Hwan-Cheol Kim, Jong-Han Leem, Ha Ryong Kim, Ok-Nam Bae. Functional and dynamic mitochondrial damage by chloromethylisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone (CMIT/MIT) mixture in brain endothelial cell lines and rat cerebrovascular endothelium. Toxicology letters. 2022 Aug 01;366:45-57

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PMID: 35803525

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