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Vibrational spectroscopy such as FTIR and Raman spectroscopy is a powerful, sensitive, and informative method for studying protein structural changes in rhodopsins during their functions. The usefulness has been historically proven for the study of bacteriorhodopsin and bovine rhodopsin before their structural determination of rhodopsins. We now have atomic structures of many animal and microbial rhodopsins, and it is now important to know the structural dynamics of rhodopsins for function. FTIR and Raman spectroscopy provides useful information for this aim. In this chapter, we introduce the methods of FTIR and resonance Raman spectroscopy applied to rhodopsins. These vibrational methods offer deeper understanding on the mechanism how rhodopsins change their structures for function. © 2022. The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature.


Hideki Kandori, Yasuhisa Mizutani. FTIR and Raman Spectroscopy of Rhodopsins. Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.). 2022;2501:207-228

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PMID: 35857230

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