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It is potentially harmful to perform coronary sinus (CS) angiography in patients with severe contrast allergy or severe renal dysfunction due to the risk of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN). However, angiography is a well-established method to guide LV-lead position during cardiac resynchronization therapy-implantation. These two case reports describe the first successful applications of carbon dioxide CS angiography in patients requiring cardiac resynchronization therapy. © 2022 Wiley Periodicals LLC.


Yousaku Okubo, Shogo Miyamoto, Sho Okamura, Takehito Tokuyama, Yukiko Nakano. Retrograde carbon dioxide coronary sinus venography. Pacing and clinical electrophysiology : PACE. 2023 Jan;46(1):31-33

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PMID: 35859525

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