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Hyponatremia, defined as a serum sodium <135 mmol/L, is frequently encountered in patients presenting to the emergency department. Symptoms are often unspecific and include a recent history of falls, weakness and vertigo. Common causes of hyponatremia include diuretics, heart failure as well as Syndrome of Inappropriate Antidiuresis (SIAD) and correct diagnosis can be challenging. Emergency treatment of hyponatremia should be guided by presence of symptoms and focus on distinguishing between acute and chronic hyponatremia. Copyright © 2022 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Gregor Lindner, Christoph Schwarz, Michael Haidinger, Svenja Ravioli. Hyponatremia in the emergency department. The American journal of emergency medicine. 2022 Oct;60:1-8

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PMID: 35870366

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