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Angiotensin-(1-9) [Ang-(1-9)] is a peptide of the non-canonical renin-angiotensin system (RAS) synthesized from angiotensin I by the monopeptidase angiotensin-converting enzyme type 2 (ACE2). Using osmotic minipumps, infusion of Ang-(1-9) consistently reduces blood pressure in several rat hypertension models. In these animals, hypertension-induced end-organ damage is also decreased. Several pieces of evidence suggest that Ang-(1-9) is the endogenous ligand that binds and activates the type-2 angiotensin II receptor (AT2R). Activation of AT2R triggers different tissue-specific signaling pathways. This phenomenon could be explained by the ability of AT2R to form different heterodimers with other G protein-coupled receptors. Because of the antihypertensive and protective effects of AT2R activation by Ang-(1-9), associated with a short half-life of RAS peptides, several synthetic AT2R agonists have been synthesized and assayed. Some of them, particularly CGP42112, C21 and novokinin, have demonstrated antihypertensive properties. Only two synthetic AT2R agonists, C21 and LP2-3, have been tested in clinical trials, but none of them like an antihypertensive. Therefore, Ang-(1-9) is a promising antihypertensive drug that reduces hypertension-induced end-organ damage. However, further research is required to translate this finding successfully to the clinic. Copyright © 2022. Published by Elsevier Inc.


Ignacio Norambuena-Soto, Camila Lopez-Crisosto, Javiera Martinez-Bilbao, Carolina Hernandez-Fuentes, Valentina Parra, Sergio Lavandero, Mario Chiong. Angiotensin-(1-9) in hypertension. Biochemical pharmacology. 2022 Sep;203:115183

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PMID: 35870482

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