Correlation Engine 2.0
Clear Search sequence regions

Sizes of these terms reflect their relevance to your search.

Light-driven proton transport by microbial retinal proteins such as archaeal bacteriorhodopsin involves carboxylic residues as internal proton donors to the catalytic center which is a retinal Schiff base (SB). The proton donor, Asp96 in bacteriorhodopsin, supplies a proton to the transiently deprotonated Schiff base during the photochemical cycle. Subsequent proton uptake resets the protonated state of the donor. This two step process became a distinctive signature of retinal based proton pumps. Similar steps are observed also in many natural variants of bacterial proteorhodopsins and xanthorhodopsins where glutamic acid residues serve as a proton donor. Recently, however, an exception to this rule was found. A retinal protein from Exiguobacterium sibiricum, ESR, contains a Lys residue in place of Asp or Glu, which facilitates proton transfer from the bulk to the SB. Lys96 can be functionally replaced with the more common donor residues, Asp or Glu. Proton transfer to the SB in the mutants containing these replacements (K96E and K96D/A47T) is much faster than in the proteins lacking the proton donor (K96A and similar mutants), and in the case of K96D/A47T, comparable with that in the wild type, indicating that carboxylic residues can replace Lys96 as proton donors in ESR. We show here that there are important differences in the functioning of these residues in ESR from the way Asp96 functions in bacteriorhodopsin. Reprotonation of the SB and proton uptake from the bulk occur almost simultaneously during the M to N transition (as in the wild type ESR at neutral pH), whereas in bacteriorhodopsin these two steps are well separated in time and occur during the M to N and N to O transitions, respectively. Copyright © 2022 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Lada E Petrovskaya, Evgeniy P Lukashev, Sergey A Siletsky, Eleonora S Imasheva, Jennifer M Wang, Mahir D Mamedov, Elena A Kryukova, Dmitriy A Dolgikh, Andrei B Rubin, Mikhail P Kirpichnikov, Sergei P Balashov, Janos K Lanyi. Proton transfer reactions in donor site mutants of ESR, a retinal protein from Exiguobacterium sibiricum. Journal of photochemistry and photobiology. B, Biology. 2022 Sep;234:112529

Expand section icon Mesh Tags

Expand section icon Substances

PMID: 35878544

View Full Text