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In this study, graphene oxide (GO)-based aerogels cross-linked with chitosan (CS), gelatin (GEL), and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) were characterized and their hemostatic efficiencies both in vitro and in vivo were investigated and compared to commercial materials (ChitoGauze®XR and Spongostan™). All aerogels exhibited highly porous structures and a negative surface charge density favorable to their interaction with blood cells. The in vitro studies showed that all aerogels coagulated >60 % of the blood contained in their structures after 240 s of the whole-blood clotting assay, the GO-CS aerogel being the one with the highest blood clotting. All aerogels showed high hemocompatibility, with hemolytic rates <5 %, indicating their use as biomaterials. Among them, the GO-GEL aerogel exhibited the lowest hemolytic activity, due possibly to its high GEL content compared to the GO amount. According to their blood clotting activity, aerogels did not promote coagulation through extrinsic and intrinsic pathways. However, their surfaces are suitable for accelerating hemostasis by promoting alternative routes. All aerogels adhered platelets and gathered RBCs on their surfaces, and in addition the GO-CS aerogel surface also promoted the formation of filamentous fibrin networks adhered on its structure. Furthermore, in vivo evaluations revealed that all aerogels significantly shortened the hemostatic times and reduced the blood loss amounts compared both to the Spongostan™ and ChitoGauze®XR commercial materials and to the gauze sponge (control group). The hemostatic performance in vitro and in vivo of these aerogels suggests that they could be used as hemostats for controlling profuse bleedings. Copyright © 2022 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Jessica Borges-Vilches, Toribio Figueroa, Sebastián Guajardo, Satchary Carmona, Constanza Mellado, Manuel Meléndrez, Claudio Aguayo, Katherina Fernández. Novel and effective hemostats based on graphene oxide-polymer aerogels: In vitro and in vivo evaluation. Biomaterials advances. 2022 Aug;139:213007

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PMID: 35891602

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