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Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is an independent predictor of systemic insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, converse correlates between excess liver fat content and β-cell function remain equivocal. Specifically, how the accumulation of liver fat consequent to the enhanced de novo lipogenesis (DNL) leads to pancreatic β-cell failure and eventually to T2DM is elusive. Here, we have identified that low-molecular-weight calcium-binding protein S100A6, or calcyclin, inhibits glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) from β cells through activation of the receptor for the advanced glycation end products and diminution of mitochondrial respiration. Serum S100A6 level is elevated both in human patients with NAFLD and in a high-fat diet-induced mouse model of NAFLD. Although serum S100A6 levels are negatively associated with β-cell insulin secretory capacity in human patients, depletion of hepatic S100A6 improves GSIS and glycemia in mice, suggesting that S100A6 contributes to the pathophysiology of diabetes in NAFLD. Moreover, transcriptional induction of hepatic S100A6 is driven by the potent regulator of DNL, carbohydrate response element-binding protein (ChREBP), and ectopic expression of ChREBP in the liver suppresses GSIS in a S100A6-sensitive manner. Together, these data suggest elevated serum levels of S100A6 may serve as a biomarker in identifying patients with NAFLD with a heightened risk of developing β-cell dysfunction. Overall, our data implicate S100A6 as, to our knowledge, a hitherto unknown hepatokine to be activated by ChREBP and that participates in the hepato-pancreatic communication to impair insulin secretion and drive the development of T2DM in NAFLD. © 2022 by the American Diabetes Association.


Surbhi Dogra, Debajyoti Das, Sujay K Maity, Avishek Paul, Priya Rawat, P Vineeth Daniel, Kausik Das, Souveek Mitra, Partha Chakrabarti, Prosenjit Mondal. Liver-Derived S100A6 Propels β-Cell Dysfunction in NAFLD. Diabetes. 2022 Nov 01;71(11):2284-2296

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PMID: 35899967

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