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    2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (2AP) is the compound that gives out the typical aroma and flavour of pandan leaves (Pandanus amaryllifolius Roxb.). This research incorporates ultrasonic extraction to extract the aromatic compound in pandan leaves. The parameters varied in this study are the extraction time, sonicator amplitude, concentration of solvent and the mass of pandan leaves. The experiment was conducted using a central composite design (CCD) model generated by the response surface methodology (RSM). From the extraction process, it can be deduced that the effect of leaves' mass is comparably higher than other parameters, while sonicator amplitude gives the most negligible impact on the process. The obtained p-value was 0.0014, which was less than 0.05. The high R-squared 0.9603 and adjusted R-squared 0.8809 indicate the model is well agreed with the actual data. The optimal control variables of ultrasonic extraction of 2AP are at an extraction time of 20 min, 60% of solvent concentration, amplitude of 25% and 12.5 g of pandan leaves, which produced 60.51% of yield of the extract and 1.43 ppm of 2AP. It is found that the mass of pandan leaves and the concentration of solvent have a significant impact on the extraction process of 2AP.


    Aisyah Nur Hanis Azhar, Nurul Aini Amran, Suzana Yusup, Mohd Hizami Mohd Yusoff. Ultrasonic Extraction of 2-Acetyl-1-Pyrroline (2AP) from Pandanus amaryllifolius Roxb. Using Ethanol as Solvent. Molecules (Basel, Switzerland). 2022 Jul 31;27(15)

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    PMID: 35956856

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