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Pseudosperma species are widely distributed worldwide. Many of them cause poisoning incidents every year, and the toxin responsible for poisoning is muscarine, which could stimulate the parasympathetic nervous system. This study established a method using multiwalled carbon nanotube purification and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for the targeted screening of mushroom toxins (muscarine, isoxazole derivatives, tryptamine alkaloids, three amatoxins and three phallotoxins) from Pseudosperma umbrinellum, a common poisonous mushroom distributed in north and northwestern China. Surprisingly, in addition to muscarine, phalloidin was also detected in P. umbrinellum, and the contents were 3022.2 ± 604.4 to 4002.3 ± 804.6 mg/kg (k = 2; p = 95%) muscarine and 5.9 ± 1.2 to 9.3 ± 1.8 mg/kg (k = 2; p = 95%) phalloidin. Copyright © 2022 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Yi-Zhe Zhang, Ya-Ya Yan, Hai-Jiao Li, Yu-Guang Fan, Fei Xu. Toxin screening of Pseudosperma umbrinellum (Agaricals, Basidiomycota): First report of phalloidin in Inocybaceae mushroom. Toxicon : official journal of the International Society on Toxinology. 2022 Oct 15;217:155-161

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PMID: 35998714

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