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The uptake and distribution of doxorubicin in the MCF7 line of breast-cancer cells were monitored by Raman measurements. It was demonstrated that bioavailability of doxorubicin can be significantly enhanced by applying Congo red. To understand the mechanism of doxorubicin delivery by Congo red supramolecular carriers, additional monolayer measurements and molecular dynamics simulations on model membranes were undertaken. Acting as molecular scissors, Congo red particles cut doxorubicin aggregates and incorporated them into small-sized Congo red clusters. The mixed doxorubicin/Congo red clusters were adsorbed to the hydrophilic part of the model membrane. Such behavior promoted transfer through the membrane.


Klaudia Kwiecińska, Anna Stachowicz-Kuśnierz, Beata Korchowiec, Maciej Roman, Wojciech M Kwiatek, Anna Jagusiak, Irena Roterman, Jacek Korchowiec. Congo Red as a Supramolecular Carrier System for Doxorubicin: An Approach to Understanding the Mechanism of Action. International journal of molecular sciences. 2022 Aug 11;23(16)

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PMID: 36012200

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