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Imaging-guided tendon procedures aim to reduce pain and increase function by controlling inflammation and stimulating healing. Ultrasound is the preferable guiding modality due to its high resolution and real-time demonstration of the tendinous anatomy and needle positioning. The technique includes appropriate patient positioning, which varies depending on the targeted tendon, as well as sterile and proper draping. For most procedures, we prefer the "in-plane" approach, which demonstrates the entire needle as it advances through different tissue layers. Upper limb injections commonly use corticosteroids and anesthetics with different reported short- and long-term results depending on the tendon treated; better results are obtained in the treatment of tenosynovitis (sliding tendons such as trigger finger and De Quervain's tenosynovitis). Shoulder and elbow tendinopathies (anchor tendons) may also benefit from injections containing irritants or healing stimulants such as dextrose (prolotherapy) and platelet-rich plasma or by the stimulation of healing via tendon perforations (fenestration). The hyaluronic acid injection has also been used in the treatment of both tenosynovitis and tendinopathies. For tendons passing through osteofibrous tunnels, an additional release may be performed, and the techniques are discussed in this review. Therefore, this article provides practicing musculoskeletal radiologists and trainees with a comprehensive review of tendon injection musculoskeletal image-guided procedures. © 2022. The Author(s), under exclusive licence to International Skeletal Society (ISS).


Flávio Duarte Silva, Fernando Zorzenoni, Lucas Nakasone Matos da Silva, Afranio Dos Reis Teixeira Neto, Marco Tulio Gonzalez, Alípio Gomes Ormond Filho, Júlio Brandão Guimarães. Tendon injections - upper extremity. Skeletal radiology. 2023 May;52(5):979-990

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PMID: 36050573

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