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After DNAs are damaged, DNA repair proteins accumulate and are activated at the DNA damaged site. These accumulated proteins are visualized as foci by fluorescent immunocytochemistry technique. This allows the DNA damage responses in interphase nuclei to be detected; it was earlier times difficult to analyze DNA damage in situ. In order to analyze DNA damage in interphase cells, either DNA is extracted to assay breaks biochemically, or premature chromosome condensation is conducted to observe as chromatin breaks. Although DNA damage-induced foci are typically analyzed in interphase cells, these foci can be also visualized on mitotic chromosomes. The foci where the repair proteins accumulate at the damage site is observed as mitotic chromosome break site. Since mitotic cells attach loosely or not attached to cell culture vessels, it is difficult to analyze foci on chromosomes in culture vessels under a microscope, so metaphase chromosome spread must be prepared for accurate analysis. The cytocentrifuge system is an ideal method to adhere mitotic cells to microscope slides for the fluorescent immunocytochemistry. This chapter introduces cytocentrifuge method to prepare metaphase spread for DNA damage foci analysis. © 2023. The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature.


Takamitsu A Kato. DNA Damage Foci on Metaphase Chromosomes. Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.). 2023;2519:93-98

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PMID: 36066713

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