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This work is dedicated to the characterization by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) of Pseudomonas fluorescens, bacteria having high potential in biotechnology. They were first studied first in optimal conditions in terms of culture medium and temperature. AFM revealed a more-or-less elongated morphology with typical dimensions in the micrometer range, and an organization of the outer membrane characterized by the presence of long and randomly distributed ripples, which are likely related to the organization of lipopolysaccharides (LPS). The outer membrane also presents invaginations, some of them showing a reorganization of ripples, which could be the first sign of a bacterial stress response. In a second step, bacteria grown under unfavorable conditions were characterized. The choice of the medium appeared to be more critical in the case of the second generation of cells, the less adapted medium inducing not only changes in the membrane organization but also larger damages in bacteria. An increased growth temperature affected both the usual "swollen" morphology and the organization of the outer membrane. Here also, LPS likely contribute to membrane remodelling, which makes them potential markers to track cell state changes.


Houssem Kahli, Laure Béven, Christine Grauby-Heywang, Nesrine Debez, Ibtissem Gammoudi, Fabien Moroté, Hana Sbartai, Touria Cohen-Bouhacina. Impact of Growth Conditions on Pseudomonas fluorescens Morphology Characterized by Atomic Force Microscopy. International journal of molecular sciences. 2022 Aug 24;23(17)

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PMID: 36076985

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