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    Xanthomegnin, a known fungal toxin, secondary metabolite, and pigment diffuses from the dermatophytes has gained attention as local virulence factor because of the mutagenicity, toxicity, cytocidal, and immunosuppressive properties. Not only as a dermatophyte in skin related disorders, the production of xanthomegnin is implicated as a powerful diagnostic marker in patients suffering from ocular mycoses. Incidentally also attributed to death in livestock's majorly by exposing themselves to food-borne fungi like Aspergillus and Penicillium. The production of xanthomegnin in dermetophytic species Trichophyton rubrum, found commonly in infected skin and nails. In this study nickel/nickel hydroxide nanoparticles decorated reduced graphene oxide (Ni/Ni(OH)2-rGO) modified glassy carbon electrode has been successfully used for non-enzymatic detection of xanthomegnin. The Ni/Ni(OH)2-rGO composites were synthesized through a simple microwave assisted technique with less harmful reducing agent. The UV-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Scanning electron microscopy - energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), and electrochemical investigations demonstrated the robust formation of the sensor. The sensor exhibited improved electrochemical properties with enhanced electrochemical active area and excellent electrochemical behavior towards xanthomegnin detection with a limit of detection of 0.12 μM. The selectivity, stability, and analytical recovery studies proved the potential use of the sensor for the detection of xanthomegnin in real samples. Further, the sensor successfully detected xanthomegnin produced by the Trichophyton rubrum, the most common superficial fungus, accounting for at least 60% of all superficial fungal infections in humans. Validation studies showed satisfiable and quantifiable amount of xanthomegnin in comparison with common bench mark UV-Vis studies meant for fungal mycotoxin detection. Copyright © 2022 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


    P D Priya Swetha, A Nikitha, M Manjunath Shenoy, Yoon-Bo Shim, K Sudhakara Prasad. Ni/Ni(OH)2-rGO nanocomposites sensor for the detection of long forgotten mycotoxin, xanthomegnin. Talanta. 2023 Feb 01;253:123953

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    PMID: 36179558

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