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Biofuels from microalgae have promising potential for a sustainable bioeconomy. Algal strains' oil content and biomass yield are the most influential cost drivers in the fourth generation biofuel (FGB) production. Genetic modification is the key to improving oil accumulation and biomass yield, consequently developing the bioeconomy. This paper discusses current practices, new insights, and emerging trends in genetic modification and their bioeconomic impact on FGB production. It was demonstrated that enhancing the oil and biomass yield could significantly improve the probability of economic success and the net present value of the FGB production process. The techno-economic and socioeconomic burden of using genetically modified (GM) strains and the preventive control strategies on the bioeconomy of FGB production is reviewed. It is shown that the fully lined open raceway pond could cost up to 25% more than unlined ponds. The cost of a plastic hoop air-supported greenhouse covering cultivation ponds is estimated to be US 60,000$ /ha. The competitiveness and profitability of large-scale cultivation of GM biomass are significantly locked to techno-economic and socioeconomic drivers. Nonetheless, it necessitates further research and careful long-term follow-up studies to understand the mechanism that affects these parameters the most. Copyright © 2022 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Hoofar Shokravi, Mahshid Heidarrezaei, Zahra Shokravi, Hwai Chyuan Ong, Woei Jye Lau, Mohd Fadhil Md Din, Ahmad Fauzi Ismail. Fourth generation biofuel from genetically modified algal biomass for bioeconomic development. Journal of biotechnology. 2022 Dec 10;360:23-36

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PMID: 36272575

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