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    This review gathered information from peer-reviewed publications on the epidemiology, prevention and control of gastrointestinal helminths (GIHs) parasites of small ruminants in the Caribbean region from 1990 to 2021. Literature search was performed on four electronic databases using a combination of search terms and Boolean operators. Results showed that gastrointestinal nematodes (GINs) were the most common parasites, with seven genera documented across six reviewed countries. Haemonchus contortus was the most common species occurring in all six countries, and predominant in occasions where mixed infections were observed. Moniezia species were the only Platyhelminth species documented in Trinidad and Grenada. The overall prevalence of GIH infections was observed to be high in goats than in sheep. A high level of anthelminthic resistance (AR) with H. contortus was reported, whilst other nematodes showed to be effectively controlled by one or more anthelmintic drugs. FAMACHA© method was applied in the identification of anaemic animals for selective treatment, hence contributing to the decreased use of anthelmintic drugs. There is a need for national surveys of GIHs and AR in small ruminants in the Caribbean countries. Surveys, coupled with the use of molecular techniques to detect and identify species of GIHs present in the Caribbean region, as well as their epidemiology which will inform development of integrated control strategies is recommended. There is also a need to create awareness to small ruminant farmers in the region on the prevailing challenge of AR and limit wanton use of anthelminthics to reduce or prevent AR in small ruminants. © 2022. The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Nature B.V.


    Ninian Cameroon-Blake, Mokgadi P Malatji, Aspinas Chapwanya, Samson Mukaratirwa. Epidemiology, prevention and control of gastrointestinal helminths of small ruminants in the Caribbean region-a scoping review. Tropical animal health and production. 2022 Nov 03;54(6):372

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    PMID: 36326971

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