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Antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) is the major cause of graft loss in kidney transplant recipients. The Banff classification defines two classes of AMR, active and chronic active but over time this classification has become increasingly complex. To simplify the approach to AMR, we developed activity and chronicity indices based on kidney transplant biopsy findings and examined their association with graft survival in 147 patients with active or chronic active AMR, all of whom had donor-specific antibodies and were treated for AMR. The activity index was determined as the sum of Banff glomerulitis (g), peritubular capillaritis (ptc), arteritis (v) and C4d scores, with a maximum score of 12. The chronicity index was the sum of interstitial fibrosis (ci), tubular atrophy (ct), chronic vasculopathy (cv), and chronic glomerulopathy (cg) scores, the latter doubled, with a maximum score of 15. While the activity index was generally not associated with graft loss, the chronicity index was significantly associated with graft loss with an optimal threshold value of 4 or greater for predicting graft loss. The association of the chronicity index of 4 or greater with graft loss was independent of other parameters associated with graft loss, including the estimated glomerular filtration rate at the time of biopsy, chronic active (versus active) AMR, AMR with de novo (versus persistent/rebound) donor-specific antibodies, Banff (g+ptc) scores, concurrent T cell-mediated rejection and donor-specific antibody reduction post-biopsy. The association of the chronicity index of 4 or greater with graft loss was confirmed in an independent cohort of 61 patients from Necker Hospital, Paris. Thus, our findings suggest that the chronicity index may be valuable as a simplified approach to decision-making in patients with AMR. Copyright © 2022 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Mark Haas, James Mirocha, Edmund Huang, Reiad Najjar, Alice Peng, Supreet Sethi, Ashley Vo, Dany Anglicheau, Stanley C Jordan, Marion Rabant. A Banff-based histologic chronicity index is associated with graft loss in patients with a kidney transplant and antibody-mediated rejection. Kidney international. 2023 Jan;103(1):187-195

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PMID: 36332728

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