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    Atomoxetine (ATX) is a presynaptic norepinephrine transporter (NET) inhibitor widely prescribed for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) due to its low abuse potential and absence of psychostimulant effects. While NET inhibition is implicated in the clinical response, several additional pharmacoactivities may contribute to clinical efficacy or unwanted side effects. We recently reported that ATX can dose-dependently alter mitochondrial function and cellular redox status. Here, we assessed potential alterations in mitochondrial biogenesis, mitochondrial dynamics and cellular antioxidant capacity following high- and low-dose ATX treatment of differentiated human neuroblastoma cells. Human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells were treated with ATX (1, 5, 10, 20 and 50 μM) for 7 days under differentiation culture conditions. Changes in the expression levels of protein markers for mitochondrial biogenesis, fusion and fission as well as of antioxidant proteins were analysed by Western blot. High-dose ATX (50 μM) reduced while low-dose ATX (10 μM) increased mitochondrial biogenesis as evidenced by parallel changes in SDHA, COX-I, PGC1α and TFAM expression. High-dose ATX also reduced mitochondrial fusion as evidenced by OPA1 and MFN2 downregulation, and mitochondrial fission as indicated by DRP1 and Fis1 downregulation. In contrast, ATX did not alter expression of the antioxidant enzymes SOD1 and catalase, the phase II transcription factor Nfr2, or the Nfr2-regulated antioxidant enzyme NQO1. Clinical responses and side effects of ATX may be mediated by dose-dependent modulation of mitochondrial biogenesis and dynamics as well as NET inhibition. © 2022. The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature.


    Sonia Carreón-Trujillo, Daniela Vázquez-González, Juan Carlos Corona. Atomoxetine Decreases Mitochondrial Biogenesis, Fission and Fusion In Human Neuron-like Cells But Does Not Alter Antioxidant Defences. Cell biochemistry and biophysics. 2023 Mar;81(1):105-115

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    PMID: 36346546

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