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    Bear bile powder (BBP) is one of the most famous traditional Chinese medicines derived from animals. It has a long history of medicinal use and is widely used in the treatment of hepatobiliary and ophthalmic diseases. Due to its similar morphological characterizations and chemical composition compared with other bile powders, it is difficult to accurately identify its authenticity. In addition, there are very few methods that could analyze the geographical origins of BBP. In this study, elemental analysis isotope ratio mass spectrometry (EA-IRMS) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) were used to determine stable isotope ratios and elemental contents, respectively. Combined these variables with chemometrics, the discrimination models were established successfully for identifying the authenticity and geographical origins of BBP. Meanwhile, the discrimination markers were identified by calculating the variable importance for the projection (VIP) value of each variable. A total of 13 discrimination markers (δ13C, δ15N, C, Li, Mg, K, Ca, Cr, Ni, Zn, As, Se, and Sr) were used to further establish the fingerprint of BBP. According to similarity analysis, the authenticity and geographical origins of BBP could be identified without chemometrics. In conclusion, the present study established a reliable method for authenticity identification and origin traceability of BBP, which will provide references for the quality control of bile medicines. © 2022. Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature.


    Minghao Yuan, Sheng Gong, Yushi Liu, Xiaohong Li, Meifeng Li, Dafu Zeng, Jiangang Li, Yiping Guo, Li Guo. Rapid discrimination of the authenticity and geographical origin of bear bile powder using stable isotope ratio and elemental analysis. Analytical and bioanalytical chemistry. 2023 Jan;415(2):345-356

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    PMID: 36350342

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