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Associated risk factors for the development of cyclops lesions have been little. Investigated, because most previous studies have limited their research to cases with symptomatic cyclops lesions (cyclops syndrome). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the presence of cyclops lesions using magnetic resonance image (MRI) at 6 and 12 months after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACL-R), and to investigate the associated risk factors of cyclops lesions and syndrome. A retrospective analysis of patients who underwent ACL-R using bone-patellar tendon-bone (BTPB) or hamstring tendon autograft from 2008 to 2017 was conducted. Predictor variables (age, sex, body mass index [BMI], time from injury to ACL-R, preinjury Tegner activity score, graft, meniscal and cartilage injury, and notch width index on MRI for the presence of cyclops lesions and syndrome were analyzed with multivariate logistic regression. Four hundred and fifty-five patients (225 males and 230 females) were enrolled. One hundred and four patients (22.9%) had cyclops lesions, and all cyclops lesions were detected on MRI at 6 months post-operatively. In addition, 20 patients (4.4%) had cyclops syndrome which means that these were symptomatic cases. The risk factors for presence of cyclops lesions were BPTB autograft (OR = 2.85; 95% CI 1.75-4.63; P < 0.001) and female sex (OR = 2.03; 95% CI 1.27-3.25; P = 0.003). The presence of cyclops syndrome increased with graft (BPTB) (OR = 18.0; 95% CI 3.67-88.3; Powered by Editorial Manager® and ProduXion Manager® from Aries Systems Corporation P < 0.001), female sex (OR = 3.27; 95% CI 1.07-10.0; P = 0.038), and increased BMI (OR = 1.21; 95% CI 1.05-1.39; P = 0.008). All cyclops lesions were detected 6 months after ACL-R, and the majority of them were asymptomatic. BPTB autograft and female sex were the significant risk factors for the presence of cyclops lesions and syndrome. In addition, increased BMI was associated with a higher risk of developing cyclops syndrome. When BPTB autograft is used for a female patient, full active knee extension should be encouraged in the early period after ACL-R to prevent cyclops lesion formation. Level IV, retrospective case series. © 2022. The Author(s) under exclusive licence to European Society of Sports Traumatology, Knee Surgery, Arthroscopy (ESSKA).


Tomohiro Tomihara, Yusuke Hashimoto, Kazuya Nishino, Masatoshi Taniuchi, Junsei Takigami, Shuko Tsumoto, Hiroshi Katsuda. Bone-patellar tendon-bone autograft and female sex are associated with the presence of cyclops lesions and syndrome after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Knee surgery, sports traumatology, arthroscopy : official journal of the ESSKA. 2023 Jul;31(7):2762-2771

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PMID: 36352241

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