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The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a complex and dynamic organelle that regulates many cellular pathways, including protein synthesis, protein quality control, and lipid synthesis. When one or multiple ER roles are dysregulated and saturated, the ER enters a stress state, which, in turn, activates the highly conserved unfolded protein response (UPR). By sensing the accumulation of unfolded proteins or lipid bilayer stress (LBS) at the ER, the UPR triggers pathways to restore ER homeostasis and eventually induces apoptosis if the stress remains unresolved. In recent years, it has emerged that the UPR works intimately with other cellular pathways to maintain lipid homeostasis at the ER, and so does at cellular levels. Lipid distribution, along with lipid anabolism and catabolism, are tightly regulated, in part, by the ER. Dysfunctional and overwhelmed lipid-related pathways, independently or in combination with ER stress, can have reciprocal effects on other cellular functions, contributing to the development of diseases. In this review, we summarize the current understanding of the UPR in response to proteotoxic stress and LBS and the breadth of the functions mitigated by the UPR in different tissues and in the context of diseases. Copyright © 2022 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Cenk Celik, Stella Yue Ting Lee, Wei Sheng Yap, Guillaume Thibault. Endoplasmic reticulum stress and lipids in health and diseases. Progress in lipid research. 2023 Jan;89:101198

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PMID: 36379317

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