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    There is a lack of data regarding the single heel-rise test (SHRT) among children. Hence, we aimed to establish reliability and reference norms of SHRT among children aged 8 to 12 years. About 500 healthy children were randomly selected from the recognized school and community settings. After demographic measurements, SHRT was conducted to evaluate the strength of each plantar flexors. SHRT repetitions were assessed by the same rater on 2 occasions for intrarater (on the same day) and test-retest reliability (on different days) and by 2 raters for inter-rater reliability. Relative reliability was described in terms of the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and Pearson correlation coefficient (r). Absolute reliability was indicated by the standard error of measurement (SEm), minimal detectable change (MDC), and Bland-Altman graph. The mean of the number of repetitions of SHRT was calculated to derive the reference norm of SHRT. The anthropometric parameters were correlated with SHRT for multiple regression analysis. Intrarater, test-retest, and inter-rater reliability of SHRT were, ICC = 0.81, ICC = 0.70, and ICC = 0.57, respectively. The Bland-Altman graph confirmed limits of agreement for intrarater, test-retest, and inter-rater reliability. The reference norm of SHRT is documented to be 20.6 ± 4.8. SEm and MDC are found to be 2 and 3, respectively. Multiple regression analysis predicted a correlation of age, weight, and calf muscle girth with SHRT. SHRT is moderate to good reliable in assessing the strength of plantar flexors. The reference norms of SHRT have been derived for healthy children aged 8 to 12 years. Copyright © 2022 the American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


    Rajnee Mishra, Vencita Priyanka Aranha, Asir John Samuel. Reliability and Reference Norms of Single Heel-Rise Test Among Children: A Cross-sectional Study. The Journal of foot and ankle surgery : official publication of the American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. 2023 May-Jun;62(3):426-431

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    PMID: 36396548

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