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    From the early days of research on RNA biology and biochemistry, there was an interest to utilize this knowledge and RNA itself for therapeutic applications. Today, we have a series of oligonucleotide therapeutics on the market and many more in clinical trials. These drugs - exploit different chemistries of oligonucleotides, such as modified DNAs and RNAs, peptide nucleic acids (PNAs) or phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomers (PMOs), and different mechanisms of action, such as RNA interference (RNAi), targeted RNA degradation, splicing modulation, gene expression and modification. Despite major successes e.g. mRNA vaccines developed against SARS-CoV-2 to control COVID-19 pandemic, development of therapies for other diseases is still limited by inefficient delivery of oligonucleotides to specific tissues and organs and often prohibitive costs for the final drug. This is even more critical when targeting multifactorial disorders and patient-specific biological variations. In this review, we will present the evolution of complexity of oligonucleotide delivery methods with focus on increasing complexity of formulations from gymnotic delivery to bioconjugates and to lipid nanoparticles in respect to developments that will enable application of therapeutic oligonucleotides as drugs in personalized therapies.


    Kamil Bakowski, Stefan Vogel. Evolution of complexity in non-viral oligonucleotide delivery systems: from gymnotic delivery through bioconjugates to biomimetic nanoparticles. RNA biology. 2022 Jan;19(1):1256-1275

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    PMID: 36411594

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