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    Codon usage bias of coding sequences has been usually used for exploring the evolutionary factors that affect the variation of genes. We took 20 chloroplast genomes of Malus species into account to explore the codon usage patterns, including the composition, relationship between GC3s and effective number of codons, the parity rule two analyses, the relative synonymous codon usage, the codon adaptation index, the frequency of optimal codons, the codon bias index, etc., of their coding genes. The relationship between GC3 and the ENC values showed that when the separate genes are concerned, the distribution of their GC3 contents is relatively concentrated and the distribution of the ENC values are from 35 to 61 or so. The neutrality plot showed that the correlation coefficient between GC12 and GC3 is 0.095, revealing the mutation factor played a weak role in codon pattern formation. Correspondence analysis results revealed that the codon usage patterns in the chloroplast genomes of Malus species are similar. All these results showed that all Malus chloroplast genomes are AT rich ones, the third bases of the codons are affected by the natural selection pressure, the first two nucleotide base of the codon are affected by mutation pressure. Some genes, such as the rsp7, psbA and ycf2 are of lower codon usage divergences, while the rps12, rps16 and ndhD are of higher codon usage divergences. Codon usage bias exists in the Malus genomes could be used for exploring the evolutionary characteristics in chloroplast genomes and for further study on evolutionary phenomenon in other species. © 2022. The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature.


    Gun Li, Liang Zhang, Pei Xue, Mengxiao Zhu. Comparative Analysis on the Codon Usage Pattern of the Chloroplast Genomes in Malus Species. Biochemical genetics. 2023 Jun;61(3):1050-1064

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    PMID: 36414922

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