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    Low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) experience the majority of traumatic brain injuries (TBIs), yet few studies have examined the epidemiology and management strategies of TBI in LMICs. The objective of this narrative review is to discuss the epidemiology of TBI within LMICs, describe the adherence to Brain Trauma Foundation (BTF) guidelines for the management of severe TBI in LMICs, and document TBI management strategies currently used in LMICs. Articles from January 1, 2009 to September 30, 2021 that included patients with TBI greater than 18 years of age in low-, low middle-, and high middle-income countries were queried in PubMed. Search results demonstrated that TBI in LMICs mostly impacts young males involved in road traffic accidents. Within LMICs there are a myriad of approaches to managing TBI with few randomized controlled trials performed within LMICs to evaluate those interventions. More studies are needed in LMICs to establish the effectiveness and appropriateness of BTF guidelines for managing TBI and to help identify methods for managing TBI that are appropriate in low-resource settings. The problem of limited pre- and post-hospital care is a bigger challenge that needs to be considered while addressing management of TBI in LMICs.


    Beddome C Allen, Elaina Cummer, Anand K Sarma. Traumatic Brain Injury in Select Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Narrative Review of the Literature. Journal of neurotrauma. 2023 Apr;40(7-8):602-619

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    PMID: 36424896

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