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Proanthocyanidins (PAs) are natural flavan-3-ol polymers that contribute protection to plants under biotic and abiotic stress, benefits to human health, and bitterness and astringency to food products. They are also potential targets for carbon sequestration for climate mitigation. In recent years, from model species to commercial crops, research has moved closer to elucidating the flux control and channeling, subunit biosynthesis and polymerization, transport mechanisms, and regulatory networks involved in plant PA metabolism. This review extends the conventional understanding with recent findings that provide new insights to address lingering questions and focus strategies for manipulating PA traits in plants. Copyright © 2022 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Keji Yu, Yushuang Song, Jinxing Lin, Richard A Dixon. The complexities of proanthocyanidin biosynthesis and its regulation in plants. Plant communications. 2023 Mar 13;4(2):100498

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PMID: 36435967

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